Hundreds of miscarriage of justice claims – immigration related offences

Hundreds of miscarriage of justice claims over legal advice failings: Thursday 14 June 2012 by Eduardo Reyes

Hundreds of asylum seekers and refugees convicted of immigration-related offences such as failure to produce a passport may have been the victims of miscarriages of justice, the Gazette can reveal.

Failings in legal advice are central to each case. The Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC), which reviews cases where a wrongful conviction is possible, has written to the Crown Prosecution Service expressing concerns after identifying common elements in 11 cases includingfour recently referred to the appeal courts, one of which has yet to be heard.

In each case, defendants were not adequately advised by lawyers of defences such as ‘reasonable excuse’ for being unable to provide a genuine passport.

Several of the cases involve Somali nationals. The UK government does not recognise Somali passports and the country has not had a passport-issuing office since 1991.

Where such defences were not considered, the CCRC told the Gazette there had been a failure by both prosecutors and defence lawyers.

CCRC chairman Richard Foster said the number of similar cases ‘could be substantial’.

CCRC barrister Yewa Holiday said the cases had important common features: defendants were not informed of defences available to them, all had been advised to plead guilty and all had received custodial sentences. ‘Prosecutions for these types of offences appear to take place without adequate advice by lawyers, who may not be familiar with the intersection of crime and international law,’ she said.

As a result, Holiday said, ‘applicants can receive substantial injustice’.

The CCRC has written to the CPS and expects to meet officials in the coming weeks. It has also contacted agencies and organisations that have contact with possible victims of a miscarriage, urging them to apply to the CCRC to have their cases reviewed.

The CPS has already had to change its approach to some cases. In the light of two cases referred to the Court of Appeal in 2006 and 2007, Thet and Mohammed and Osman, the CPS told the Gazette that detailed legal guidance had been issued to prosecutors explaining ‘reasonable excuse’ and the range of possible defences. Prosecutors were instructed to consider offering no evidence in similar cases.

A CPS spokesperson said: ‘It is incumbent upon solicitors representing defendants to establish whether there might be a statutory defence to a charge or a ground of appeal.’ She added that the CPS relies on information provided to it by the UK Border Agency when determining if there is a defence involving the status of the country from which the defendant may have travelled.

Advising on immigration offences: Wednesday 27 June 2012

Criminal practitioners are reminded of the need to be familiar with the statutory defences to immigration-related offences when advising clients suspected or accused of these offences, following concerns raised by the Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC).

Responding to an article in the Law Society Gazette on 14 June 2012 in which the CCRC expressed its concern at several cases in which people convicted of immigration offences have been victims of miscarriages of justice, due to both defence and prosecution lawyers’ failure to identify ‘reasonable excuse’ defences, Richard Atkinson, chair of the Criminal Law Committee said:

‘The report brings to our attention CCRC concern about five identified cases of wrongful convictions in immigration-related offences. This is also of concern to the Criminal Law Committee. I would remind all defence practitioners dealing with people suspected or accused of such offences of the need to be familiar with the relevant provisions, and any statutory defences that may be available. In advising their clients they should carefully consider whether a defence, such as having a reasonable excuse for failure to provide a genuine passport, may be available. Crown Prosecution Service lawyers should likewise consider the detailed guidance it has issued explaining ‘reasonable excuse’ and other defences when these are raised. It is important that full instructions are taken and accurate advice is given to these potentially very vulnerable people.’

Read more:
Law Society Gazette article
CPS advice

About the Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC)

The Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC) is an independent public body that was set up in March 1997 by the Criminal Appeal Act 1995. Our purpose is to review possible miscarriages of justice in the criminal courts of England, Wales and Northern Ireland and refer appropriate cases to the appeal courts. …